References on myopia control

Before I started to developed, I read a lot of different studies and papers about myopia control. At the same time, I had the opportunity to talk and chat with several myopia control opinion leaders around the world how gives me the inspiration how to build all the algorithm, I finally use on this web application. Special thanks to Nick Dash, Andreas Tsiounis and Richard L. Anderson. Richard builds with a reference website, which has inspired and informed a lot of eye care specialist around the world.

The following list of references is a part of papers I used.


AND HIGH MYOPIA Impact of increasing prevalence of myopia and high myopia a Report of the Joint World Health Organization–Brien Holden Vision Institute Global Scientific Meeting on Myopia THE IMPACT OF MYOPIA AND HIGH MYOPIA University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia 16–18 March 2015


D.I. Filtcroft; The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology; Science Direct 06/2012


Au Eong KG, Tay TH, Lim MK. Education and myopia in 110,236 young Singaporean males. Singapore Med J 1993;34:489-92.


Pan CW, Ramamurthy D, Saw SM. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for myopia. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2012;32:3–16.


Hammond CJ, Snieder H, Gilbert CE, Spector TD. Genes and environment in refractive error: the twin eye study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2001;42:1232–6.


Chung_et_al-2000; Near esophoria high is associated with myopia; The Australian Journal of Optometry


Wu PC, Tsai CL, Wu HL, et al. Outdoor activity during class recess reduces myopia onset and progression in school children. Ophthalmology 2013;120:1080–5.


Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Moeschberger ML, Jones LA, Zadnik Kl. Parental myopia, near work, school achievement and children’s refractive error. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002;43:3633-40.


Mutti, D. O., Mitchell, G. L., Hayes, J. R., Jones, L. A., Moeschberger, M. L., Cotter, S. A., et al. (2006). Accommodative lag before and after the onset of myopia. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 47, 837–846.


Kiefer AK, Tung JY, Do CB, et al. Genome-wide analysis points to roles for extracellular matrix remodeling, the visual cycle, and neuronal development in myopia. PLoS Genet 2013;9:e1003299.


Yap M, Wu M, Wang SH, Lee FL, Liu ZM. Environmental factors and refractive error in Chinese schoolchildren. Clin Exp Optom 1994;77: 8-14.


Ciuffreda KJ, Ordonez X. Abnormal transient myopia in symptomatic individuals after sustained nearwork. Optom Vis Sci 1995;

72: 506-510.


Goss DA, Jackson TW. Clinical findings before the onset of myopia in youth: 3. Heterophoria. Optom Vis Sci 1996; 73: 269-278.


Goss DA, Rainey BB. The relationship of accommodative response and near-point phoria in a sample of myopic children. Optom Vis Sci 1999; 76: 292-294.


Elliott H. Myrowitz, OD, MPH; Juvenile myopia progression, risk factors and interventions; Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology (2012) 26, 293—297


Saw SM, Zhang MZ, Hong RZ, Fu ZF, Pang MH, Tan DTH. Near-work activity, night-lights, and myopia in the Singapore-China study. Arch Ophthalmol 2002;120:620-7.


Zylbermann R, Landau D, Berson D. The influence of study habits on myopia in Jewish teenagers. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1993;30:319-22.


Saw SM, Chua WH, Hong CY, Wu HM, Chan WY, Chia KS, et al. Nearwork in early-onset myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002;45: 332-9.


Sherwin JC, Reacher MH, Keogh RH, et al. The association between time spent outdoors and myopia in children and dolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ophthalmology 2012;119:2141–51.


Saw SM, Hong CY, Chia KS, Stone RA, Tan D. Nearwork and myopia in young children. Lancet 2001;357:390.


Fan DS; The effect of parental history of myopia on eye size of pre-school children: a pilot study.; Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica [2005, 83(4):492-496]


Young FA, Leary GA, Baldwin WR, et al. The transmission of refractive errors within Eskimo families. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1969;46:676–85.


Rose KA, Morgan I, Smith W, Mitchell P. Myopia: prevalence, risk factors and natural history. The Sydney Myopia Study. International Myopia Conference 2006 paper S016

Morgan I, Rose K. How genetic is school myopia? Prog Retin – Eye Res 2005;24:1–38.


Pacella, R., McLellan, J., Grice, K., Del Bono, E. A., Wiggs, J. L., & Gwiazda, J. E. (1999). Role of genetic factors in the etiology of juvenile-onset myopia based on a longitudinal study of refractive error. Optometry and Vision Science, 76, 381–386


Katie M. Williams et all.; Increasing Prevalence of Myopia in Europe and the Impact of Education; American Adademy of Ophtalmology; Volume 122, Number 7, July 2015


Bar Dayan Y, Levin A, Morad Y, Grotto I, Ben-David R, Goldberg A, et al. The changing prevalence of myopia in young adults: a 13-year series of population-based prevalence surveys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005;46:2760-5.


Ip JM, Saw SM, Rose KA, et al. Role of near work in myopia: findings in a sample of Australian school children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008;49:2903–10.


Saw SM, Tong L, Chia KS, Koh D, Lee YS, Katz J, et al. The relation between birth size and the results of refractive error and biometry measurements in children. Br J Ophthalmol 2004;88:538-42.


Williams C, Miller LL, Gazzard G, Saw SM. A comparison of measures of reading and intelligence as risk factors for the development of myopia in a UK cohort of children. Br J Ophthalmol 2008;92:1117–21.


Controlling myopia progression in children and Adolescents; Molly J Smith, Jeffrey J Walline; Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics 2015:6


Visual performance with multifocal soft contact lenses in non-presbyopic myopic eyes during an adaptation period; Cathleen Fedtke, Klaus Ehrmann, Varghese Thomas; Clinical Optometry April 2016


Clinical management of progressive myopia; TA Aller; Eye (2014) 28, 147–153


Global trends in myopia management attitudes and strategies in clinical practice; James S. Wolffsohn et all; Contact Lens & Anterior Eye (2016),


Myopia Control with Bifocal Contact Lenses: A Randomized Clinical Trial; Thomas A. Aller* et all; 1040-5488/16/9304-0000/0 VOL. 93, NO. 4, PP.OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE


Spectacle Lenses Designed to Reduce Progression of Myopia: 12-Month Results Padmaja Sankaridurg et all; 1040-5488/10/8709-0631/0 VOL. 87, NO. 9, PP. 631–641 OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE


Does peripheral retinal input explain the promising myopia control effects of corneal reshaping therapy (CRT or ortho-K) & multifocal soft contact lenses?; Earl L. Smith III; Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics ISSN 0275-5408


Report of the National Myopia Prevention and Control Workgroup 2006: A Summary Seo-Wei Leo; Annals Academy of Medicine October 2007, Vol. 36 (Suppl) No. 10


Atropine for the Treatment of Childhood Myopia: Safety and Efficacy of 0.5%, 0.1%, and 0.01% Doses (Atropine for the Treatment of Myopia 2); Audrey Chia et all; Ophthalmology 2011; © 2011 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.